International Journal of Art & Design Education

Advocacy, Resources, Teachers: Continuing Challenges for Art Education

Volume 16.3   1997



Industrial art education entered nineteenth century Massachusetts schools as an educational reform, but was not completely successful. Key factors contributing to this failure included, first, conflicting rationales used in advocating art education; second, discrepancies between authoritative taste and early consumer choice in art reproductions which threatened the power of reformers; and third, differing assumptions about art among art specialists and classroom teachers, compounded by growing distinctions between men's and women's sphere of action, made it difficult for teachers to fully participate in the reform process. Parallels with late twentieth century reform policies are drawn.