International Journal of Art & Design Education

2018 - Volume 37: Number 2

Obituary: Mervvn Paul Romans 1943-2017 (page 166)


DO: 10.1111/jade.12189

The NSEAD Survey Report 2015-16: Political Reflections from Two Art and Design Educators (pages 167 - 177)


In 2015 the (UK) National Society for Education in Art and Design conducted their biggest and most comprehensive survey to date with art and design educators. Some 1,191 teachers and lecturers employed in early years to further education settings across England and Wales responded to the survey, which aimed to capture how government policy since 2010 has affected art and design education. Four key areas were examined; curriculum provision; value given to the subject within the school community; professional development opportunities and well-being and workload. The results are troubling, indicating a systemic marginalisation of art and design across all sectors, evident in a reduction in choice, provision and curriculum time, and evidence of falling standards in student attainment  at primary to secondary transfer. We supported the NSEAD with constructing the survey and writing the report and in this article we utilise the Survey Report to fuel a broader discussion with our concerns regarding the demise of art and design education. Value is identified as an essential theme and we posit that our subject, largely due to neolibralist policy, is currently perceived as a 'bimbo': attractive, but unintelligent and frivolous. In this article we pay particular attention to the value of art and design education from a political perspective, challenging narrow government agendas.


NSEAD, survey report, value/s, neolibralism

DOI: 10.1111/jade.12142

Exploring, Developing, Facilitating Individual Practice, While Learning to Become a Teacher of Art, Craft and Design (pages 177 - 186)


The artist teacher project set out to facilitate trainee teachers' creative practice and inform their critical pedagogy in the classroom. The approach outlined in this article encouraged them to consider predictable and formulaic practice, and to question, reflect upon and challenge orthodoxies in their teaching of art, craft and design. They critically appraised their practice within a community of reflective practitioners in critical presentations, and in their reflective writing, and discussed and debated the contradictory positions between what they explored in their individual practices as artists and that experienced in the classroom. This project highlighted how fundamental the critical presentations were because the peer-review, feedback and support, facilitated dialogue in a creative, dynamic space and community of practice. These 'crits' also became a forum for airing frustrations and trying to come to terms with the re-emergence of their artistic identities while at the same time, having to suppress many of their convictions and ideals in order to conform to what they found on school placement.


Artist teacher, creative environments, teacher-training, critical presentations (crits), artists

DOI: 10.1111/jade. 12098

The Transformative Impact of Blended Mobility Courses (pages 187 - 198)


Several pedagogical assets of the blended-learning courses conducted within the partnership originate from their novel site-specific approach and intercultural value. Conducted outside school environments across Austria, Croatia, Italy and Slovenia in 2011-14, over a dozen of these intensive Master's programme workshops mixed students and mentors from different cultural and professional backgrounds, intersecting the realms of film, new media, photography, performance, architecture and contemporary art. These short-term academic mobility courses concluded with public exhibitions, screenings or performances, often at eminent cultural venues or in public spaces pertaining to the site-specific character of each course.This article discusses key issues that proved beneficial for conceiving and implementing this this fruitful academic collaboration format. Several curricular and organisational solutions are presented that increased positive impact on students as well as other stakeholders in this project-based pedagogical piloting of the Media Arts and Practices international Master's programme. Set against its curriculum-development framework, the article examines new methodological solutions, joint mentoring models and group dynamics management, as well as some specific logistical issues. Next to developing relevant employment skills and attitudes, such production-orientated, but process aware course designs offer timely academic provisions as a response to a 'glocalised' world. More importantly, these course designs can also foster students' engagement with the actual ( social, economic, natural, political) environment and the development of life-long learning habits.   


site-specific, methodology, academic mobility, new media, blended, ADRIART


Genuine Participation in Design Practice: Towards a Possible Metric (pages 199 - 210)


What is genuine participation in the context of design practice? Genuine participation is often considered the missing element that differentiates a successful participation project from an unsuccessful participation project. But what, exactly, does genuine mean and, more importantly for research purposes how can 'genuineness' of participation be measured? The present study is a first step to explore a possible metric for genuine participation. To begin, a questionnaire developed from six key topics of focus within participatory design research was created and administered to university design students. The results, analysed by a principal component analysis, yielded statistically reliable, strong and otherwise clear and coherent patterns. These patterns were then qualitatively interpreted. The results indicated that intrinsic motivation, participation self-efficacy and positive group affect can serve as reliable metrics for measuring the quality of the participation experience . It is proposed that future research into genuine participation consider the impact of these three variables. 


teamwork, user participation, participatory design, research methods, self-efficacy

DOI: 10.1111/jade. 12102

A Pedagogy of the Concept:Rereading an Architectural Convention through the Pholosophy of Deleuze and Guattari (pages 211 - 220)


In this article, we seek to unpack and enrich the notion of the design concept. We do this through the use of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari's 'concept' in its philosophical specifity to critique less-effective uses of the design concept. In particular, we investigate the idea that a concept is actually an aggregation of many concepts that can be seen to have a virtual consistency as a way to reframing more limited, typical, design concepts - used as justification, explanation, clarification or excuse. our interest here is to explore how concepts can become much more useful throughout the process of design by drawing linkages between the concept and the working of the creative process itself. In other words, we see the concept, parsed philosophically, as fusing with design thinking; and by taking advantage of this coupling each strengthens the other. Ultimately, we claim that a richer view of language and  more performative processes of making ( diagramming) drive this coupling; and when it is working, the design concept becomes a much more useful instrument for designing.


Deleuze, Guattari, concept, creativity, language, process, diagram, architecture

DOI: 10.1111/jade.12095

Drawing Pedagogies in Higher Education: the Learning Impact of a Collaborative Cross-disciplinary Drawing Course (pages 221 - 232)


Drawing is taught in higher education across art and design but also, increasingly, in medical education with a variety of aims and approaches. It is argued that there is a need, in both these disciplinary domains, to make more explicit the underpinning pedagogical approach to drawing and the impact that different approaches have on learning. The research described in this article focuses on an optional drawing course for undergraduate craft students and medical students. The course is run by the College of Arts and Humanities at a UK university and has a thematic focus on the human body. This qualitative case study sets out, in the context of selected theory about the teaching and learning of drawing , to explore what the learning impact of a particular collaborative model of teaching drawing was on a cross-disciplinary student group. Findings included, with reference to Riley's framework of drawing pedagogies, that a range of philosophical and pedagogical ideas about drawing were blended from the teaching perspective in a way that enabled students from distinct disciplinary backgrounds to engage and learn.. A shift was observed in students' perceptions of drawing, with both sets of students questioning previously held assumptions about the use and value of drawing within their learning. Life drawing and anatomy laboratory drawing, in particular, provoked deep and challenging reflections about different cultural conceptions of the human body and the practice of collaborative drawings, with dialogical reflection, enabled insights to be developed into different disciplinary epistemologies.    


drawing, collaborative, cross-disciplinary, craft, medicine, body

DOI: 10.1111/jade.12106

Is it 'all about having an opinion?' Challenging the Dominance of Rationality and Cognition in Democratic Education via Research in a Gallery Setting (pages 233 - 243)


This article reports on findings from a research study exploring the potential for democratic learning in a gallery education project which took place in the UK in 2006-7. In doing so, it also explores a pressing issue for education today: the question of young people's democratic education in a time of political crisis in Europe. The focus of this article lies in a critique of the primacy of rational thought, cognitive skills and verbal discussion within democratic education, and an exploration of the potential role of the arts and art education in challenging this. Specifically, the article argues that there has been an affective and corporeal deficit in democratic education, and that some forms of gallery education are well placed to address this. Although the data discussed derive from a particular time and place (the UK in the latter days of a government that rigorously pursued an agenda of social and economic inclusion through both education and cultural policy), they also have relevance beyond their immediate context, illuminating the nature and dynamics of the process of democratic learning , and its aesthetic and artistic dimensions.


gallery education, performance art, collaborative art, democracy, citizenship

DOI: 10.1111/jade.12107

Turning Polemics into Pedagogy: Teaching About Censorship in Art Education (pages 244 - 252)


In recent decades, the field of art education has seen an increasing interest in issues of social justice and social reconstruction which has led to pre-service art educators often being encouraged to include potentially controversial topics in their pedagogy. Suprisingly, however, there seams to have been little concurrent discussion concerning the inherent risks involved in introducing polemic themes within the classroom. indeed, despite its obvious importance, the subject of censorship is often given little attention in art education circles, save for when it has already become an active problem, such as when an instructor is accused of censorship by a student or when forces outside the classroom seek to involve themselves in pedagogical decisions. In this article, I describe my experience in creating and implementing an undergraduate pre-service art education course on the subject of censorship. i begin by examining my students' reactions to some of the themes explored, and then explain how discussing cases of art censorship and controversy can serve as a platform for introducing students to the key role that content plays in how we perceive, value and react to artworks. finally, i make the argument that by including censorship as a subject within their curriculum, teachers can help students better to navigate the psychological, moral and ethical complexities of contemporary art making.


censorship, social justice, art education, critical thinking, pre-service

DOI: 10.1111/jade.12105

Walking The Talk: from Theory to Practice in Delivering Community Based Design Education (pages 253 - 264)


This paper discusses the models of 'walking the talk', when running design studios based on the 'live projects' model within a university setting for vulnerable communities. This model is examined through exploring emerging humanitarian and community-based design approaches in architectural education. It is tested through  two case studies of design studios in Mostar and Beirut, led by the author between 1998 and 2002. Lessons from these community-engagement studios are applied through a third case study, a design project for a disability day-care centre in Hoi An, Vietnam. The project was led by RMIT University students and staff between 2009-11 and built in 2012.


design studio, live project, community engagement, humanitarian design, action learning

DOI: 10.1111/jade.12049

Critical Thinking: Art Criticism as a Tool for Analysing and Evaluating Art, Instructional Practice and Social Justice Issues (pages 265 - 276)


Recent educational initiatives have emphasised the importance of fostering critical thinking skills in today's students in order to provide strategies for becoming successful problem solvers throughout life. Other scholars advocate the use of critical thinking skills on the grounds that such tools can be used effectively when considering social justice issues. In this article we make the case that teaching and learning strategies of analytical art criticism can serve as fundamental tools used not just for the study of art, but can also centre critical thinking and analysis in all aspects of the art education curriculum. Our argument begins with a review of literature on the use of art criticism for critical thinking and meaning making. Then we describe our efforts to address critical thinking with our students by using the critical analysis model of art criticism and applying it to learning environments for forming reasoned judgments about teaching and learning, and also as a springboard for examining social justice issues. We believe that promoting this form of affectively driven, intellectually guided critical thinking makes our students potentially more successful not just in their encounters with art and education, but also in their lives as human beings beyond school.


critical thinking, art criticism, critical analysis, instructional observations, social justice

DOI: 10.1111/jade.12111

Creativity in the Bronze Age: Bringing Archaeological Research into Contemporary Craft Teaching and Learning Through a Live Project (pages 277 - 286)


The CinBA Live Project sought to engage students of contemporary craft courses in the UK with Bronze Age creativity. We aimed to explore the ways  in which creativity inherent in prehistoric craft may be used as an inspiration in contemporary making. It simultaneously offered institutions a unique opportunity to offer a practice-led research-based live project which was distinct to those generally known to be available to art and design institutions. It offered a different experience within this established pedagogical model in art and design education by using the Bronze Age as a source of inspiration for creative practice through practice-based research in contemporary craft within the framework of an international academic research project, and suggesting new roles for the interpretation of the prehistoric past through creative work. This article reports on the CinBA Live Project. It outlines the context of the opportunity, details our methods of facilitation, describes the activities undertaken by the students and considers the outputs and post-project impact of the activity.


creativity, live project, Bronze Age, contemporary craft, practice-based research, impact

DOI: 10.1111/jade.12114

Public Pedagogy and Social Justice in Arts Education (pages 287-299)


in this article we explore examples of public pedagogical actions and interventions, reading them through a social justice education framework lens. In our discussion we start with definitions of social justice, public pedagogy and case study methodologies. Then we look at a variety of international examples to highlight the pervasiveness of public pedagogical opportunities in visual culture that include a festival, an individual, a citywide symposium, an online community, a cultural group and a museum exhibition. They are divided into three categories based on social justice principles suggested by Ayers et al. and later interpreted by Dewhurst: (1) Public pedagogy and social justice is rooted in peoples experiences: Fiesta del Senor de Choquekillka: Ollantaytambo, Peru and Janet Weight Reed - an artist's public pedagogy utilising social media.; (2) Public pedagogy and social justice is a process reflection and action together: Ideas City Festival and the Vlogbrothers; (3) Public pedagogy and social justice seeks to dismantle systems of inequality to create a more humane society: CULTRUNNERS and sh[OUT]: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex Art and Culture. It is our hope that in looking more closely at these international examples of public pedagogy and social justice education that the power of such alternative sites of learning is apparent and encourages further interventions and investigations in such spaces of inquiry.


social justice, art and design education, public pedagogy, alternative sites of learning, socially engaged art

DOI: 10.1111/jade.12120

The Factory; an Experimental Studio for Discovering the Other (pages 300 - 311)


This article discusses the idea of otherness in design education and introduces a new approach that merges the potentials of collaborative and individual design. The aim is for each individual student to discover how others design to criticize and derive their own ways of designing. Therefore, the discussion here focuses on the process of becoming aware of other designers and the importance of being with others while designing. i call this state the Field of Otherness. It is something that cannot be described or taught; it is a relative and indeterminate zone based on the existence of others. It is a set of potentials in which designers oscillate and their design aspects merge into a multiplicity. In this article i argue that by discovering others, designers encounter each other in the Field of Otherness and this enables them to design diversely. To broaden the discussion within this context, an experimental one-day project called The Factory is explored. The main idea of the project was to introduce students to The Field of Otherness, in which they would design by continual 'as ifs' and oscillations to meet the other; who is precisely unfamiliar, unexpected, unknown and inexperienced. Interviews with students three months after the project are used to investigate the effects. These interviews can also be seen as fragments of the otherness experience of the students.


otherness, reflective-conciousness, design philosophy, instructive design, interactive design, design behaviour

DOI: 10.1111/jade. 12119

Design Education without Borders: How Students Can Engage with a Socially Conscious Pedagogy as Global Citizens (pages 312 - 324)


This study examines the student experience of a third sector graphic design project in an international context. Inspired by a humanist and socially conscious perspective that was originally set out  by Ken Garland's 'First Things First' Manifesto in 1964, the project developed into a collaborative learning experience for African and European students. The aim of this project was to develop  student global citizenship and mobility through a cultural learning experience  in a very different environment with challenging resources and social conditions. Using student interviews and evidence from their reflective journals, this article analyses how UK design students participated and negotiated the implementation of live projects in an African context, specifically Mozambique. It also examines the wider impact on the cohort of students and friends who did not travel to Africa but followed the experience online. Risk taking, experimentation and an appetite for enquiry are attributes that students are encouraged to develop, but they can equally apply to teachers and lecturers as they develop their curricula. Within the framework of university learning, teaching and assessment strategies space can be found for design educators to look beyond corporate and conventional consumer outlets to a more socially conscious and community focus without borders.


graphic design, internationalisation, global citizenship, higher education, post-colonialism

DOI: 10.1111/jade.12117

Responding to Big Data in the Art Education Classroom: Affordances and Problematics


This article raises questions about the use in art education classrooms of social networking sites like Facebook and image sharing sites like YouTube that rely upon the ability of  Big Data to aggregate large amounts of data, to include data on students. this article also offers suggestions for the responsible use of these sites. Many youth are using these sites as creative platforms and, taking their lead, the author describes his own use of YouTube as a creative tool in his pre-service classroom. The author argues that most art educational literature that relies on Big Data sites consider only the affordances and not the problematics involved, specifically issues of privacy and having youth effectively working as unpaid labour for global corporations. 


Big Data, creativity, prosumer, participatory culture, YouTube, privacy

DOI: 10.1111/jade.12129

Rethinking Education through Contemporary Art (pages 333 - 344) 


This article is part of a broader investigation  exploring how contemporary art allows us to think about the process that underpins our teaching and learning in order to change it. We are tutors in initial teacher education and we teach, learn and communicate through contemporary art for a pedagogical model. In the following article we show how teaching, learning and communicating through contemporary art helps future teachers be aware of their educational models. Art encounters generate new learning and teaching experiences by allowing students and teachers to make various rhizomatic wanderings. The rhizomatic wanderings are diverse with the content and the form, depending on the personal experience. The article concludes that the more rhizomatic wanderings future teachers the more they will be able to rethink the process of teaching and learning in order to attend to the diverse situations of classrooms of the twenty-first century.


contemporary, art, teacher education, rhizomatic wanderings, education models, awareness

DOI: 10.1111/jade.12132


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